Author Instructions

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Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – at the institute where the work has been carried out. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation.
Permissions

Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
​​​​​​​Please follow the hyperlink “Submit manuscript” and upload all of your manuscript files following the instructions given on the screen. For your manuscript text please always submit in common word processing formats such as .docx.
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• Original Research articles should provide authors’ findings on a particular topic through experiments, analysis, observations, etc. Full-length, technically original research article should summarize all possible details in a concise way and should be accessible for a broad readership. 

• Short communication article presenting brief observations that do not warrant a full-length paper and is restricted to 3000 words (excluding references). It may include a maximum of four figures or tables.

• Review articles should be based on the latest developments or progression made in the field/ topics covered by the journal. It should balance and provide a comprehensive depth of the topic. The maximum word count of a review is 8,000 words and should contain no more than 5 Figures/Tables
Mini-review articles should provide a concise overview of recent advances in the stated subject area in the Journal’s scope. Mini Review articles should have a maximum word count of 3,500 and may contain no more than 2 Figures/Tables. 
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• Scientific opinions/commentaries should present the authors' unique viewpoint on existing scientific research problems, fundamental concepts, or widespread ideas on a specific topic. It may propose, support, or discuss new and emerging theories/ideas/hypotheses by providing enough scientific evidence. Scientific opinions/commentaries should have a maximum word count of 2,000 and may contain no more than 1 Figure/Table.
This journal follows a double-blind reviewing procedure. This means that the author will remain anonymous to the reviewers throughout peer review.
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Use Times New Roman 12 with 1.5 line spacing throughout the manuscript. Tables and figures should not be included in main manuscript. Italics should be used in the text for all scientific names and other terms such as genes, mutations, genotypes and alleles. SI units should be used throughout the manuscript.

Article structure
Manuscripts should be prepared according to the following order
•    Title 
•    Author information
•    Abstract and 3–6 keywords
•    Introduction
•    Material and Methods
•    Results
•    Discussion
•    Conclusions
•    Acknowledgements
•    References
•    Tables
•    Figures
•    Figure Legends

Title: The title should be concise and informative.

Author information

•    The name(s) of the author(s)
•    The affiliation(s) of the author(s), i.e. institution, (department), city, (state), country
•    A clear indication and an active e-mail address of the corresponding author
•    If available, the 16-digit ORCID of the author(s)

Abstract 

Please provide an abstract of 150 to 250 words. The abstract should be concise and factual written in a single paragraph. It should state briefly the purpose of research the principal results and major conclusions. 

Keywords: Please provide 4 to 6 keywords which can be used for indexing purposes.

Introduction 

State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

Materials and Methods 

 Materials and methods section should include the design of the study, the type of materials involved, a clear description of all comparisons, and should be concise but sufficient for repetition by other qualified investigators. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.

Results 

Results should be clear and concise.

Tables

•    All tables are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
•    Tables should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order. 
•    For each table, please supply a table caption (title) explaining the components of the table.
•    Identify any previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference at the end of the table caption.
•    Footnotes to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data) and included beneath the table body.

 Figures:

Authors may use line diagrams and photographs to illustrate these from their text. The figures should be clear, easy to read and of good quality. 

Figure Numbering

•    All figures are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
•    Figures should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order.
•    Figure parts should be denoted by lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.).
•    If an appendix appears in your article and it contains one or more figures, continue the consecutive numbering of the main text. Do not number the appendix figures,"A1, A2, A3, etc." Figures in online appendices [Supplementary Information (SI)] should, however, be numbered separately.

Figure Captions

•    Each figure should have a concise caption describing accurately what the figure depicts. Include the captions in the text file of the manuscript, not in the figure file.
•    Figure captions begin with the term Fig. in bold type, followed by the figure number, also in bold type.
•    No punctuation is to be included after the number, nor is any punctuation to be placed at the end of the caption.
•    Identify all elements found in the figure in the figure caption; and use boxes, circles, etc., as coordinate points in graphs.
•    Identify previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference citation at the end of the figure caption.

Permissions

If you include figures that have already been published elsewhere, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner(s). Please be aware that some publishers do not grant electronic rights for free and that Springer will not be able to refund any costs that may have occurred to receive these permissions. In such cases, material from other sources should be used.

Discussion 

This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

Conclusions

The main conclusions of the study should be presented in under this section.

Acknowledgements 

All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship as defined above should be listed in an acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, writing assistance, or a department chair that provided only general support.

References 

Cite references in the text in alphabetical order first, and chronological order second. Some examples:
1. Negotiation research spans many disciplines (Thompson 1990).
2. This result was later contradicted by Becker and Seligman (1996).
3. This effect has been widely studied (Abbott 2002; Barakat et al. 1995a, b; Kelso and Smith 1990; Medvec et al. 1999, 2000).
Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last names of the first author of each work. Please alphabetize according to the following rules: 1) For one author, by name of author, then chronologically; 2) For two authors, by name of author, then name of coauthor, then chronologically; 3) For more than two authors, by name of first author, then chronologically.
If available, please always include DOIs as full DOI links in your reference list (e.g. “https://doi.org/abc”).
•    Journal article
Gamelin FX, Baquet G, Berthoin S, Thevenet D, Nourry C, Nottin S, Bosquet L (2009) Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol 105:731-738. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-008-0955-8
Ideally, the names of all authors should be provided, but the usage of “et al” in long author lists will also be accepted:
Smith J, Jones M Jr, Houghton L et al (1999) Future of health insurance. N Engl J Med 965:325–329 
•    Article by DOI 
Slifka MK, Whitton JL (2000) Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J Mol Med. https://doi.org/10.1007/s001090000086
•    Book
South J, Blass B (2001) The future of modern genomics. Blackwell, London
•    Book chapter
Brown B, Aaron M (2001) The politics of nature. In: Smith J (ed) The rise of modern genomics, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 230-257
•    Online document
Doe J (1999) Title of subordinate document. In: The dictionary of substances and their effects. Royal Society of Chemistry. Available via DIALOG. http://www.rsc.org/dose/title of subordinate document. Accessed 15 Jan 1999

Graphical Abstracts

You are welcome to submit a graphical abstract consisting of an image (figure, scheme) representing the contents of the article graphically. The use of color is strongly encouraged here.

Conflict of interest

All authors have to declare their conflict of interest.

​​​​​​Consent for publications

All authors have to write this sentence that they read and approved the final manuscript for publication.

Availability of data and material

The authors have to declare that they embedded all data in the manuscript.

Authors’ contributions

All authors should write their part in designing the idea, doing, analyzing and writing the article.
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Funding
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Authors should mention the company, institution or organization that paid for the research


​​​​​​​Ethical Responsibilities of Authors
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This journal is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) the journal will follow the COPE guidelines on how to deal with potential acts of misconduct.
Authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results which could damage the trust in the journal, the professionalism of scientific authorship, and ultimately the entire scientific endeavour. Maintaining integrity of the research and its presentation is helped by following the rules of good scientific practice, which include*:

  • The manuscript should not be submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration.

  • The submitted work should be original and should not have been published elsewhere in any form or language (partially or in full), unless the new work concerns an expansion of previous work. (Please provide transparency on the re-use of material to avoid the concerns about text-recycling (‘self-plagiarism).

  • A single study should not be split up into several parts to increase the quantity of submissions and submitted to various journals or to one journal over time (i.e. ‘salami-slicing/publishing’).

  • Concurrent or secondary publication is sometimes justifiable, provided certain conditions are met. Examples include: translations or a manuscript that is intended for a different group of readers.

  • Results should be presented clearly, honestly, and without fabrication, falsification or inappropriate data manipulation (including image based manipulation). Authors should adhere to discipline-specific rules for acquiring, selecting and processing data.

  • No data, text, or theories by others are presented as if they were the author’s own (‘plagiarism’). Proper acknowledgements to other works must be given (this includes material that is closely copied (near verbatim), summarized and/or paraphrased), quotation marks (to indicate words taken from another source) are used for verbatim copying of material, and permissions secured for material that is copyrighted.

Important note: the journal may use software to screen for plagiarism.

  • Authors should make sure they have permissions for the use of software, questionnaires/(web) surveys and scales in their studies (if appropriate).

  • Research articles and non-research articles (e.g. Opinion, Review, and Commentary articles) must cite appropriate and relevant literature in support of the claims made. Excessive and inappropriate self-citation or coordinated efforts among several authors to collectively self-cite is strongly discouraged.

  • Authors should avoid untrue statements about an entity (who can be an individual person or a company) or descriptions of their behavior or actions that could potentially be seen as personal attacks or allegations about that person.

  • Research that may be misapplied to pose a threat to public health or national security should be clearly identified in the manuscript (e.g. dual use of research). Examples include creation of harmful consequences of biological agents or toxins, disruption of immunity of vaccines, unusual hazards in the use of chemicals, weaponization of research/technology (amongst others).

  • Authors are strongly advised to ensure the author group, the Corresponding Author, and the order of authors are all correct at submission. Adding and/or deleting authors during the revision stages is generally not permitted, but in some cases may be warranted. Reasons for changes in authorship should be explained in detail. Please note that changes to authorship cannot be made after acceptance of a manuscript.

*All of the above are guidelines and authors need to make sure to respect third parties rights such as copyright and/or moral rights.
Upon request authors should be prepared to send relevant documentation or data in order to verify the validity of the results presented. This could be in the form of raw data, samples, records, etc. Sensitive information in the form of confidential or proprietary data is excluded.

Research involving human participants, their data or biological material

Ethics approval

When reporting a study that involved human participants, their data or biological material, authors should include a statement that confirms that the study was approved (or granted exemption) by the appropriate institutional and/or national research ethics committee (including the name of the ethics committee) and certify that the study was performed in accordance with the ethical standards as laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration or comparable standards, the authors must explain the reasons for their approach, and demonstrate that an independent ethics committee or institutional review board explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study. If a study was granted exemption from requiring ethics approval, this should also be detailed in the manuscript (including the reasons for the exemption).

Retrospective ethics approval

If a study has not been granted ethics committee approval prior to commencing, retrospective ethics approval usually cannot be obtained and it may not be possible to consider the manuscript for peer review. The decision on whether to proceed to peer review in such cases is at the Editor's discretion.

Ethics approval for retrospective studies

Although retrospective studies are conducted on already available data or biological material (for which formal consent may not be needed or is difficult to obtain) ethics approval may be required dependent on the law and the national ethical guidelines of a country. Authors should check with their institution to make sure they are complying with the specific requirements of their country.

Ethics approval for case studies

Case reports require ethics approval. Most institutions will have specific policies on this subject. Authors should check with their institution to make sure they are complying with the specific requirements of their institution and seek ethics approval where needed. Authors should be aware to secure informed consent from the individual (or parent or guardian if the participant is a minor or incapable) See also section on Informed Consent.

Cell lines

If human cells are used, authors must declare in the manuscript: what cell lines were used by describing the source of the cell line, including when and from where it was obtained, whether the cell line has recently been authenticated and by what method. If cells were bought from a life science company the following need to be given in the manuscript: name of company (that provided the cells), cell type, number of cell line, and batch of cells.
It is recommended that authors check the NCBI database for misidentification and contamination of human cell lines. This step will alert authors to possible problems with the cell line and may save considerable time and effort.
Further information is available from the International Cell Line Authentication Committee (ICLAC).
Authors should include a statement that confirms that an institutional or independent ethics committee (including the name of the ethics committee) approved the study and that informed consent was obtained from the donor or next of kin.

Research Resource Identifiers (RRID)

Research Resource Identifiers (RRID) are persistent unique identifiers (effectively similar to a DOI) for research resources. This journal encourages authors to adopt RRIDs when reporting key biological resources (antibodies, cell lines, model organisms and tools) in their manuscripts.
Examples:
Organism: Filip1tm1a(KOMP)Wtsi RRID:MMRRC_055641-UCD
Cell Line: RST307 cell line RRID:CVCL_C321
Antibody: Luciferase antibody DSHB Cat# LUC-3, RRID:AB_2722109
Plasmid: mRuby3 plasmid RRID:Addgene_104005
Software: ImageJ Version 1.2.4 RRID:SCR_003070
RRIDs are provided by the Resource Identification Portal. Many commonly used research resources already have designated RRIDs. The portal also provides authors links so that they can quickly register a new resource and obtain an RRID.

Clinical Trial Registration

The World Health Organization (WHO) definition of a clinical trial is "any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects on health outcomes". The WHO defines health interventions as “A health intervention is an act performed for, with or on behalf of a person or population whose purpose is to assess, improve, maintain, promote or modify health, functioning or health conditions” and a health-related outcome is generally defined as a change in the health of a person or population as a result of an intervention.
To ensure the integrity of the reporting of patient-centered trials, authors must register prospective clinical trials (phase II to IV trials) in suitable publicly available repositories. For example www.clinicaltrials.gov or any of the primary registries that participate in the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform.
The trial registration number (TRN) and date of registration should be included as the last line of the manuscript abstract.
For clinical trials that have not been registered prospectively, authors are encouraged to register retrospectively to ensure the complete publication of all results. The trial registration number (TRN), date of registration and the words 'retrospectively registered’ should be included as the last line of the manuscript abstract.

Summary of requirements

The above should be summarized in a statement and placed in a ‘Declarations’ section before the reference list under a heading of ‘Ethics approval’.
Examples of statements to be used when ethics approval has been obtained:
• All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The study was approved by the Bioethics Committee of the Medical University of A (No. ...).
• This study was performed in line with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. Approval was granted by the Ethics Committee of University B (Date.../No. ...).
• Approval was obtained from the ethics committee of University C. The procedures used in this study adhere to the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki.
• The questionnaire and methodology for this study was approved by the Human Research Ethics committee of the University of D (Ethics approval number: ...).
Examples of statements to be used for a retrospective study:
• Ethical approval was waived by the local Ethics Committee of University A in view of the retrospective nature of the study and all the procedures being performed were part of the routine care.
• This research study was conducted retrospectively from data obtained for clinical purposes. We consulted extensively with the IRB of XYZ who determined that our study did not need ethical approval. An IRB official waiver of ethical approval was granted from the IRB of XYZ.
• This retrospective chart review study involving human participants was in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The Human Investigation Committee (IRB) of University B approved this study.
Examples of statements to be used when no ethical approval is required/exemption granted:
• This is an observational study. The XYZ Research Ethics Committee has confirmed that no ethical approval is required.
• The data reproduced from Article X utilized human tissue that was procured via our Biobank AB, which provides de-identified samples. This study was reviewed and deemed exempt by our XYZ Institutional Review Board. The BioBank protocols are in accordance with the ethical standards of our institution and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Authors are responsible for correctness of the statements provided in the manuscript. See also Authorship Principles. The Editor-in-Chief reserves the right to reject submissions that do not meet the guidelines described in this section
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Ecosystems and Biomes Journal
​​​​​​​ISSN: 2367-8194  (Online)
Dilfuza Egamberdieva
Editor-in-Chief
Ecobiomes Research Lab, 
National University of Uzbekistan
Tashkent, Uzbekistan
egamberdievad@gmail.com
Indexing and Abstracting
Мы в сети:
National University of Uzbekistan
Faculty of Biology
Joint Uzbek-China Key Lab of “Ecobiomes”
100174, Tashkent, University str. 4