Interactive Effects of Biochar, Nitrogen, and Phosphorous on the Symbiotic Performance, Growth, and Nutrient Uptake of Soybean (Glycine max L.)

Numerous studies reported the positive effect of soil amendment with biochar on plant development. However, little is known about biochar and its interrelation with nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) additions and their impact on plant growth. We carried out greenhouse experiments to understand the interactive effects of nitrogen and phosphorus supply, as well as biochar amendment, on the symbiotic performance of soybean (Glycine max L.) with Bradyrhizobium japonicum, and plant growth and nutrient uptake. The biochar was produced from maize by heating at 600 °C for 30 min and used for pot experiments at an application rate of 2%. Plants were fertilized with two different concentrations of P (KH2PO4) and N (NH4NO3). Biochar application significantly increased the dry weight of soybean root and shoot biomass, by 34% and 42%, under low nitrogen and low phosphorus supply, respectively. Bradyrhizobium japonicum inoculation enhanced the dry weight of shoot biomass significantly, by 41% and 67%, in soil without biochar and with biochar addition, respectively. The nodule number was 19% higher in plants grown under low N combined with low or high P, than in high N combinations, while biochar application increased nodule number in roots. Moreover, biochar application increased N uptake of plants in all soil treatments with N or P supply, compared with B. japonicum-inoculated and uninoculated plants. A statistical difference in P uptake of plants between biochar and nutrient levels was observed with low N and high P supply in the soil. Our results show that the interactions between nitrogen, phosphorus, and biochar affect soybean growth by improving the symbiotic performance of B. japonicum and the growth and nutrition of soybean. We observed strong positive correlations between plant shoot biomass, root biomass, and N and P uptake. These data indicated that the combined use of biochar and low N, P application can be an effective approach in improving soybean growth with minimum nutrient input. View Full-Text
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National University of Uzbekistan
Faculty of Biology
Joint Uzbek-China Key Lab of “Ecobiomes”
100174, Tashkent, University str. 4